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Monday, November 20, 2017

John's son Arch did not marry Polly... probably

JOHN NICHOLS' son ARCH did not marry POLLY UPDIKE.
How do i know?
First let me explain YDNA... Basically, it means that I have the same YDNA as my father and his father and his father and so on... And because of that i can say with a certain degree of confidence that i am descended from JOHN NICHOLS of Bedford County Virginia who married MARTHA J PAYNE because he and i have the same YDNA.
Now records show that my great grandfather JIMs father, EZEKIELs father, JOHN NICHOLS was     born in Bedford, Va. in 1814. And my sources say that JOHN and MARTHA PAYNE NICHOLS had a son named ARCHIBALD who had a son named JOHN about that time. But since his son JOHN was born in 1814, he would have been the son of Archibald's wife JUDITH HATCHER who was still alive and married to him at the time. Now Judith did not die until April 4, 1819, which means that she was still very much married in January of that year when MARY POLLY UPDIKE married in Bedford County to another Archibald Nichols and the two of them moved to West Virginia at some point later. But since Arch was married to Judith in January he most likely did not marry Polly,... probably. Also, Polly's son, John M Nichols who married Sarah Adeline Richardson in Bedford County would not be the son of Judith. Judith's son John married Martha Ann Jones in Bedford County and was still there in 1860 for the census. My research shows that the family that moved to WV was not related to JOHN who married MARTHA J PAYNE. 


LINKS---

NICHOLS SURNAME PROJECT 
http://www.brian-hamman.com/ResultsForNicholsSurnameProject.htm

DAR PROFILE
http://services.dar.org/Public/DAR_Research/search_adb/?action=full&p_id=A083505

Friday, November 17, 2017

Eurogenes K12b Admixture Proportions


Eurogenes K12b Admixture Proportions

This utility uses the revised Eurogenes K12b model, created by Davidski (Polako). The old K12b model has been removed. Questions and comments about this model
should be directed to him at his Eurogenes blog. We appreciate him making this excellent tool available here.

A map showing the K12b populations is available HERE.

Population descriptions are available HERE.

Kit Number: A393554   Elapsed Time: 12.27 seconds
Population 
Western European44.63
Siberian0.45
East African-    
West Central Asian1.70
South Asian0.35
West African0.83
Caucasus5.01
Finnish6.30
Mediterranean15.71
Southwest Asian2.18
North European22.83
East Asian-   

Friday, November 10, 2017

Eurogenes K12 Admixture Proportions


Eurogenes K12 Admixture Proportions


This utility uses the Eurogenes K12 model, created by Davidski (Polako). Questions and comments about this model
should be directed to him at his Eurogenes blog. We appreciate him making this excellent tool available here.

A map showing the K12 populations is available HERE.

Population descriptions are available HERE.

Kit Number: A393554   Elapsed Time: 12.31 seconds

Population 
South Asian-    
Caucasus4.63
Southwest Asian1.37
North Amerindian + Arctic-    
Siberian-    
Mediterranean13.19
East Asian-    
West African0.71
Volga-Ural8.78
South Baltic10.78
Western European31.00
North Sea29.54

Friday, November 3, 2017

Eurogenes K11 Admixture Proportions


Eurogenes K11 Admixture Proportions

This utility uses the Davidski/Polako Eurogenes K11 model. Questions and comments about this model
should be directed to him at his Eurogenes blog. We appreciate him making this excellent tool available here.

A map showing the K11 populations is available HERE.

Population descriptions are available HERE.

Kit Number: A393554   Elapsed Time: 11.36 seconds

Population
South Asian-    
Caucasus4.95
Southwest Asian1.46
North Amerindian + Arctic-    
Siberian-    
Mediterranean14.98
East Asian-    
West African0.73
Volga-Ural10.19
South Baltic13.63
North Atlantic54.06

Friday, October 27, 2017

Eurogenes K10 Admixture Proportions


Eurogenes K10 Admixture Proportions


This utility uses the Eurogenes K10 model, created by Davidski (Polako). Questions and comments about this model
should be directed to him at his Eurogenes blog. We appreciate him making this excellent tool available here.

A map showing the K10 populations is available HERE.

Population descriptions are available HERE.

Kit Number: A393554   Elapsed Time: 11.20 seconds

Population 
South Asian0.25
Caucasus5.46
Southwest Asian1.53
North Amerindian + Arctic0.12
Siberian0.47
Mediterranean15.64
East Asian-    
West African0.75
East European19.77
North Atlantic56.01

Friday, October 20, 2017

Eurogenes K9 Admixture Proportions


Eurogenes K9 Admixture Proportions

This utility uses the Eurogenes K9 model, created by Davidski (Polako). Questions and comments about this model
should be directed to him at his Eurogenes blog. We appreciate him making this excellent tool available here.

A map showing the K9 populations is available HERE.

Population descriptions are available HERE.

Kit Number: A393554   Elapsed Time: 9.73 seconds

Population
South Asian0.41
Caucasus5.33
Southwest Asian1.44
North Amerindian + Arctic0.17
Siberian0.55
Mediterranean27.58
East Asian-    
West African0.78
North European63.73

www.gedmatch.com

Friday, October 13, 2017

K9b results at GEDMATCH #FamilyHistoryFriday


Eurogenes K9b Admixture Proportions


This utility uses the Eurogenes K9b model, created by Davidski (Polako). This model approximates the Geno 2.0 analysis. Questions and comments about this model
should be directed to him at his Project Blog.

Kit Number: A393554   Elapsed Time: 7.64 seconds


Population
Southwest_Asian8.28
Native_American0.94
Northeast_Asian1.11
Mediterranean17.65
North_European69.09
Southeast_Asian0.21
Oceanian1.26
South_African0.38
Sub-Saharan_African1.08

Friday, October 6, 2017

COLONEL JOHN WASHINGTON 9X GREAT GRANDFATHER

COL. John 9X Washington (1632 - 1677)
9th great-grandfather
Anne 8X Washington WRIGHT (1662 - 1697)
daughter of COL. John 9X Washington
John 7X Wright Sr. (1685 - 1739)
son of Anne 8X Washington WRIGHT
CAPT. John 6X Wright (1709 - 1792)
son of John 7X Wright Sr.
CAPTAIN William THE BLACKSMITH 5X Wright (1729 - 1805)
son of CAPT. John 6X Wright
REV. James G 4X Wright (1756 - 1823)
son of CAPTAIN William THE BLACKSMITH 5X Wright
Margaret "Peggy" 3xGG Wright KING (1806 - 1872)
daughter of REV. James G 4X Wright
Michael O. 2x King =pvt. csa 42nd va. infantry and pow (1842 - 1931)
son of Margaret "Peggy" 3xGG Wright KING
Turissia Marcella "Tressie Teresa Teressa" 1gg King (1871 - 1947)
daughter of Michael O. 2x King =pvt. csa 42nd va. infantry and pow
Rufus Samuel Nichols R-CTS1751 (1893 - 1958)
son of Turissia Marcella "Tressie Teresa Teressa" 1gg King
HOWARD E "POP" NICHOLS R-M269 (1936 - 2017)
son of Rufus Samuel Nichols R-CTS1751
RAYMOND E NICHOLS R-CTS1751  

LINKS ===
NATIONAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON FAMILY DESCENDANTS  

THE WASHINGTONS, VOLUME 9, WASHINGTONS, WRIGHTS, GRANTS, KINGS, AND NICHOLS

Recently found a new source for my Wright and Washington lines and wanted to share it here.
THE WASHINGTONS, VOLUME 9 has a rundown of my ancestry from Colonel John Washington to my grandpa Rufus S. Nichols and his siblings.

Rufus is the son of James Ira Nichols and Teresa Marcella King of Franklin County, Virginia. Tressie is a direct descendant of George Washington's immigrant great grandfather John Washington who is a descendant of at least one Magna Charta Baron and is a founder of Jamestown and therefore a patriot of the American Revolution and a founder and patriot of the United States of America. Pretty sure he is listed in the SAR directory as well.

John Washington married Ann Pope and had a daughter Ann who married Major Francis Wright. Ann and Frank had a son named John Wright who is my seventh great grandfather.

John married Dorothy Aubrey according to sources and had my sixth great grandfather Captain John Wright, Junior, who married Elizabeth Bronaugh and had my fifth great grandfather Captain William Wright, Senior, who was a blacksmith.

William married Mary Grant who was the mother of my fourth great grandfather, the Reverend James Wright, Senior. James married Margaret Young who was also known as Peggy and was the father of Margaret "Peggy" Wright, named after her mother, obviously.

Peggy married Anthony King, Junior, and was the mother of Michael O King who married Louisa Catherine Aldridge.

Louisa was the daughter of Mary "Polly" Gibson and the mother of Teresa Marcella King, my great grandmother.

This line is listed in the book from William Wright to Rufus and is accepted as fact by the National Society of  the Washington Family Descendants.

Robert "Furfan" de Ros, 1st Lord of Helmsley, Surety of the Magna Carta

Robert de Ros, 1st Lord Ros of Helmsley is your 19th great grandfather.
You
   →  POP
your father →  Rufus Samuel Nichols, R-CTS1751
his father →  Tressie (King) Nichols
his mother →  Michael O. King
her father → Margaret (Wright) King
his mother →  James GRANT Wright
her father →  Mary Whitledge Wright
his mother →  William Grant, of Crichie
her father →  Elizabeth Grant
his mother →  William Leslie, X. Baron of Balquhain
her father →  Janet Forbes
his mother →  John Forbes, 6th Lord Forbes
her father →  Christian Gordon
his mother → Elizabeth Crichton, countess of Huntly
her mother →  William Crichton, 1st Lord Crichton
her father →  Sir John de Crichton, of Crichton
his father → Isabel de Ros, Heiress of Sanquar
his mother →  Robert de Ros, Lord Ros of Wark
her father →  Robert de Ros, Lord of Wark
his father → Sir Robert de Ros, 1st Baron Warke
his father →  Robert de Ros, 1st Lord Ros of Helmsley
his father

https://www.geni.com/people/Robert-de-Ros-1st-Lord-Ros-of-Helmsley/6000000000437148369

Friday, September 29, 2017

Saier de Quincy, Earl of Winchester, Surety for the Magna Carta

Saier de Quincy, Earl of Winchester, Surety for the Magna Carta is your 20th great grandfather.
You
   →  POP
your father →  Rufus Samuel Nichols, R-CTS1751
his father →  Tressie (King) Nichols
his mother →  Michael O. King
her father → Margaret (Wright) King
his mother →  James GRANT Wright
her father →  Mary Whitledge Wright
his mother →  William Grant, of Crichie
her father →  Elizabeth Grant
his mother →  William Leslie, X. Baron of Balquhain
her father →  Janet Forbes
his mother →  John Forbes, 6th Lord Forbes
her father →  Christian Gordon
his mother → Elizabeth Crichton, countess of Huntly
her mother →  William Crichton, 1st Lord Crichton
her father →  Sir John de Crichton, of Crichton
his father → Isabel de Ros, Heiress of Sanquar
his mother →  Lora de Baliol
her mother →  Sir Alexander de Baliol of Cavers, 1st Lord Balliol
her father →  Lora de Valognes
his mother → Loretta de Quincy
her mother →  Saier de Quincy, Earl of Winchester, Surety for the Magna Carta
her father

Friday, September 22, 2017

William de Mowbray, Baron of Thirsk, Magna Carta Surety

William de Mowbray, Baron of Thirsk is your 21st great grandfather.
You
   →  Mom
your mother →  Pvt. Garnett Hancock, WWII Veteran
her father →  Burrell H Hancock
his father →  Samuel Austin Hancock
his father → Elizabeth Edwards Hancock
his mother →  Brice Edwards
her father →  Olive Edwards
his mother →  Capt Joseph Martin, Sr., of Albemarle
her father → William Martin, merchant of Bristol
his father →  Capt. John Martin, of Pale Park
his father →  Elizabeth Gerrard
his mother →  Sir William Gerrard
her father → Sir Thomas Gerard, I, Kt.
his father →  Peter Ryon Gerard
his father →  Sir Thomas Gerard, of Kingsley and Bryn
his father →  Peter Gerard
his father →  Alice Gerard
his mother →  Alice de Plumpton
her mother →  Christiana de Mowbray
her mother →  John de Mowbray, 2nd Baron Mowbray
her father → Roger de Mowbray, 1st Baron Mowbray
his father →  Roger de Mowbray
his father →  William de Mowbray, Baron of Thirsk
his father

https://www.geni.com/people/William-de-Mowbray-Baron-of-Thirsk/6000000000796884769

Friday, September 15, 2017

William Malet, Baron of Curry Mallet and Surety of the Magna Carta

William Malet, Baron of Curry Mallet and Surety of the Magna Carta is your 22nd great grandfather.    
You
   →  Mom
your mother →  Pvt. Garnett Hancock, WWII Veteran
her father →  Burrell H Hancock
his father →  Samuel Austin Hancock
his father → Elizabeth Edwards Hancock
his mother →  Brice Edwards
her father →  Olive Edwards
his mother →  Capt Joseph Martin, Sr., of Albemarle
her father → William Martin, merchant of Bristol
his father →  Capt. John Martin, of Pale Park
his father →  Thomas Martin, of Parkpole
his father → Robert Martin, of Athelhampton
his father →  Lady Marie Martin
his mother →  James Daubeney
her father →  William Daubeney, 5th Baron Daubeney
his father → Giles Daubeney, 6th Baron Daubeney
his father →  Margaret Daubeney
his mother →  Margaret (St John) de Beauchamp
her mother → John de St. John, 1st Lord of Basing
her father →  Alice FitzPiers, Lady of Bassing
his mother →  Alice de Stanford
her mother →  Joan de Stanford (de Vivonia)
her mother → Mabel Malet, Lady
her mother →  William Malet, Baron of Curry Mallet and Surety of the Magna Carta
her father  

https://www.geni.com/people/William-Malet-Baron-of-Curry-Mallet-and-Surety-of-the-Magna-Carta/6000000003693601810

Friday, September 8, 2017

William de Lanvaley III, Lord of Stanway, Surety of the Magna Carta

William de Lanvaley III, Lord of Stanway, Surety of the Magna Carta is your 22nd great grandfather.
You
   →  POP
your father →  Rufus Samuel Nichols, R-CTS1751
his father →  Tressie (King) Nichols
his mother →  Michael O. King
her father → Margaret (Wright) King
his mother →  James GRANT Wright
her father →  Mary Whitledge Wright
his mother →  William Grant, of Crichie
her father →  Elizabeth Grant
his mother →  Jean Erskine
her mother →  Sir Alexander Erskine, Baron of Gogar
her father →  Margaret Campbell
his mother →  Archibald Campbell, 2nd Earl of Argyll
her father → Isabel Stewart of Lorn, Countess of Argyll
his mother →  John Stewart, 2nd Lord Lorn
her father →  Robert Stewart, 1st Lord of Lorn
his father → Isobel MacDougall, of Argyll
his mother →  Jonet Isaac
her mother →  Maud Bruce
her mother →  Elizabeth de Burgh, Queen of Scots
her mother →  Margaret de Burgh
her mother → John de Burgh (II)
her father →  Hawise de Lanvaley
his mother →  William de Lanvaley III, Lord of Stanway, Surety of the Magna Carta
her father

https://www.geni.com/people/William-de-Lanvaley-III-Lord-of-Stanway-Surety-of-the-Magna-Carta/6000000003827232851

Friday, September 1, 2017

John de Lacy, 2nd Earl of Lincoln, Magna Carta Surety

John de Lacy, 2nd Earl of Lincoln, Magna Carta Surety is my 21st great grandfather.
You
   →  Mom
your mother →  Pvt. Garnett Hancock, WWII Veteran
her father →  Burrell H Hancock
his father →  Samuel Austin Hancock
his father → Elizabeth Edwards Hancock
his mother →  Brice Edwards
her father →  Olive Edwards
his mother →  Capt Joseph Martin, Sr., of Albemarle
her father → William Martin, merchant of Bristol
his father →  Capt. John Martin, of Pale Park
his father →  Elizabeth Gerrard
his mother →  Sir William Gerrard
her father → Margery Gerard (Trafford)
his mother →  Margaret Trafford, Lady
her mother →  Katherine Savage
her mother →  Joan Goushill, Baroness of Stanley
her mother → Elizabeth FitzAlan, Duchess of Norfolk
her mother →  Elizabeth de Bohun, Countess of Arundel
her mother →  Elizabeth de Badlesmere, Countess of Northampton
her mother →  Margaret de Clare, Baroness of Badlesmere
her mother →  Sir Thomas de Clare, Lord of Thomond
her father →  Maud Matilda de Lacy
his mother → John de Lacy, 2nd Earl of Lincoln, Magna Carta Surety
her father

https://www.geni.com/people/John-de-Lacy-2nd-Earl-of-Lincoln-Magna-Carta-Surety/6000000000166150229

Tuesday, August 29, 2017

THE BRENT FAMILY

From the Brent family a source for my Brent ancestors
https://archive.org/stream/jstor-4242785/4242785_djvu.txt


2. Richard baptized Nov. 7, 1656, married Margaret, daughter of Sir 
John Peshall, mentioned in grandmother's will—- will dated 22 July, 
1676. Codicil 27 Oct., 1678, will proved 10 May, 1679, his wife Margaret 
buried at Illmington 22 June, 1666; 3. Giles emigrated to Maryland 

1638, married Mary , died in Virginia 167 1; 4. William, married 

Barbara and died without issue, his wife buried at Illmington, 

July 10, 1686. Concerning this gentleman, Anthony a Wood says : 
11 Henry Carey began a translation of the history of France written by the 
Count Gualdo Priorato, but died after he had made some progress 
therein. Afterwards it was finished by Wtn. Brent, Esq'r, and printed 
at London, 1677 (being the same person that had before wrote (sic), a 
book entitled, "A discourse upon the nature of eternity and the condition 
of a separated soul according to the grounds of reason and principles of 
Christian Religion" London, 1655, written while he was a prisoner in 
the Gatehouse at Westminister. It was afterwards printed there again 
in 1674.) 

By the way it must be known that though we have had several Brents 
who have been students of the University (Oxford), yet this Will. Brent 
was not, but educated when a youth in Coll. of English Jesuits at St. 
Omers. Afterwards being entered into the Society of Grey's Inn, he 
became a barrister and a solicitor or such like officer under Thomas 
Earl of Strafford, when he was Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. He was 
born at Stoke Lark in Gloucestershire, in the Parish of Illmington in 
Warwickshire, and having suffered much for his religion by imprison- 
ment, payments of money, and I know not what, lived privately several 
years at Foxcote in Warwickshire, and in his last days in London. He 
died near Little Turnstile, in Holborn in the Parish of St. Giles, in the 
Fields near London, 21 May, 1691, aged 80 years or more." 5. Edward, 
unmarried; 6. George, administrator to his father 1652, mentioned in 
grandmother's will and in conveyance 1663 as "of Defford," married 
Marianna, daughter of Sir John Peyton of Doddington, and twice 
married afterwards; 7. Margaret born 1601, emigrated to Maryland 
1638, was alive in 1661, mentioned in grandmother's will; 8. Mary 
emigrated to Maryland 1638, died about 1657; 9. Catherine, baptized 
Aug. 25, 1630, died Nov. 1, 1640; 10. Elizabeth; 11. Eleanor; 12. Jane; 
13. Ann, baptized Aug. 7, 1637, at Illmington. 

Issue of Richard and Margaret (Peshall) Brent; 1. Robert, married 

Catherine , executor to his father, will dated 19 November, 1693, 

will proved 24 October, 1695. The following curious grant is men- 
tioned in Hotten's "Our Emigrant Ancestors " : 28 February, Grant to 
Robert Brent of all wrecks, &c, in or upon any of the Rocks, Shelves, 
seas or banks, on or near the coast of America between the Bermudas 
and Porto Rico or between Cartagena and the Havanna; 4. Jas. II, 
(1689). 2. Frances, died Dec. 20, 1656; 3. Mary, died April 3, 1657; 5. 



GENEALOGY. 101 

Katherine, born May 7, 1639; 6. Elizabeth, died July 14, 1656; 7. Giles, 
died before 1666; 8. Margaret, married Thomas Bartlett of Evesham 
and had Richard and other children. 

MARGARET BRENT -- A BRIEF HISTORY == #FamilyTreeTuesday

Margaret Brent, lawyer, women's activist, nun, daughter of Richard Brent and Elizabeth Reade, my tenth great aunt... she moved to Maryland with her sister Mary in 1638 and settled land granted them by Lord Baltimore that they called Sisters Freehold, according to...

MARGARET BRENT -- A BRIEF HISTORY
http://msa.maryland.gov/msa/speccol/sc3500/sc3520/002100/002177/html/mbrent2.html

MARGARET BRENT -- A BRIEF HISTORY© Lois Green Carr


Margaret Brent (1601-1671) is most renowned today for requesting a vote in the Maryland Assembly in an age when women, queens excepted, were not allowed direct participation in political life. In company with her sister Mary and two brothers, Giles and Fulke, she arrived in Maryland on November 22, 1638. The two sisters were armed with orders from Lord Baltimore that they were to be granted land on the terms he had offered to the first adventurers of 1634. The Brents were Catholics of noble descent and were distant cousins of the Proprietor. In Maryland they sought religious freedom and economic opportunity. Lord Baltimore, in turn, clearly expected that they would be valuable to his colony.
Lord Baltimore intended Maryland to be both a Catholic refuge and a profitable enterprise. To these ends, he needed Protestant as well as Catholic settlers. But how could Protestants and Catholics live peacably together in Maryand when they could not do so in England? To solve this problem, he promised toleration of all Christian religious practices and political participation to all settlers otherwise qualified without regard to religious preference. The Brents were participating in an experiment extraordinary for the time.
Margaret Brent's career in Maryland was remarkable in many ways, but one of the most striking things about it is that she and her sister never married. Their single status was more unusual than perhaps most people realize because in coming to Maryland they moved to a society in which, at this time, men outnumbered women about six to one. The pressures on them to marry must have been extreme, unless they were protected by vows of celibacy. Whether this explanation is possible is a question that deserves exploration.
All the early investors in Maryland -- Jesuit priests included -- were entrepreneurs, who brought in settlers, developed land, and raised tobacco for an international market. Margaret Brent was no exception. She and her sister, who as unmarried women were legally able to own and manage property, took up land and established a household independent of their brothers. Fulke soon returned to England, but Giles immediately became a colony leader. Margaret was active in importing and selling servants and lending capital to incoming settlers. She appeared for herself in court to collect her debts and in general handled her business affairs as a man would have done and without assistance from her brothers. With Governor Leonard Calvert, she was joint guardian of the daughter of the Piscataway "Emperor" Kittamaquand. Were these achievments all there is to tell, Margaret Brent would attract our attention and admiration for her enterprise under rugged conditions.
It happens that there is much more to tell. Early in 1645, seven years after the Brents' arrival, a Protestant ship captain, Richard Ingle, raided the settlement on the St. Mary's river in the name of the English Parliament, which was carrying on a civil war with Charles I. Ingle took the colony by surprise, burned the Catholic chapel, plundered the homes of Catholic settlers, and returned to England with Giles Brent and the Jesuit priests in chains. Governor Calvert fled to Virginia, and the Calverts came close to losing the colony entirely. Most of the Protestants left to become the first settlers in Virginia's Northern Neck, just across the Potomac river. The population of Maryland, perhaps 500-600 people at Ingle's raid, probably dropped to under 100, fewer than had come on Ark and Dove eleven years before. If Maryland was to recover, the province had to start anew.
Leonard Calvert, for reasons that remain mysterious, did not return to his colony until late November or December 1646. Arriving with a small band of soldiers, nearly half of whom were former settlers, he met with little resistance, except on Kent Island. He had paved the way with a promise to pardon all willing to swear fidelity to the Maryland Proprietor. Then, on June 9, 1647, he died. On his death bed he appointed Thomas Green as governor, but made Margaret Brent the executor of his estate, with instructions to "take all and pay all."
There is no doubt that at that moment Margaret Brent's courage and diplomacy were important to Maryland's survival. Without her, the Calverts might have lost their territory to Virginia and the experiment in religious toleration would have ended then and there. The soldiers were clamoring for their pay. There was a shortage of food. New disorders seemed imminent. Leonard Calvert had pledged his whole Maryland estate and that of his brother, the Lord Baltimore, to pay the soldiers, but Leonard's movable assets were insufficient, and under English law, as executor, Margaret could not readily sell his land. She kept pacifying soldiers ready at times to  mutiny. Finally, with no time to gain Lord Baltimore's consent, on January 3, 1648, the Provincial Court appointed her as his attorney-in-fact.  She was replacing Leonard Calvert, to whomthe Proprietor had given power, jointly with John Lewger, the provincial Secretary, to dispose of his property in emergency without authorization.
At this point, Margaret made the move for which she is most famous today. On January 21, 1648, she appeared before the Assembly to demand two votes, one for herself as a landowner and one as Lord Baltimore's legal representative. The Governor refused and she departed with the statement that she "Protested against all proceedings ... unless she may be present and have vote as aforesaid." It is unlikely that she expected success, but she knew well that the Assembly was unwilling to vote taxes to pay soldiers whom Governor Calvert had promised to pay himself. She may have hoped by her protest to cover herself as she faced the immediate necessity of selling the Proprietor's cattle without his knowledge. That day she began the sale, thereby averting a crisis that might have destroyed the colony and its policy of religious toleration.
As it turned out, her tactic, if it was such, was of no avail. Lord Baltimore was furious at what he saw as confiscation of his property and he was suspicious of Margaret's motives. When Leonard Calvert had been away in England in 1644, she had allowed her brother Giles to marry her ward, the Piscataway "empress" Mary Kittomaquand, and Lord Baltimore evidently feared that Giles would claim Indian lands in her name. By 1650, his wrath had driven all the Brents to remove to the Northern Neck of Virginia, where they brought in dozens of settlers and thereby took up and developed large grants of land. Margaret lived on her plantation, named "Peace," until her death about 1671.
Some modern advocates of women's rights have interpreted Margaret Brent as an early feminist. This she surely was not. Well born, exceptionally able, and entrusted with a heavy responsibility, she undoubtedly felt entitled to participate in making the decisions necessary to rescue the colony; but nothing indicates a belief that women generally should have the vote or that the patriarchal arrangements that deprived married women of independence were wrong.
The Maryland Assembly expressed well the nature of Margaret Brent's achievement. "We do Verily Believe," they wrote Lord Baltimore, "... that [your estate] was better for the Collonys safety at that time in her hands then in any mans else ... for the Soldiers would never have treated any other with ... Civility and respect .... She rather deserved favour and thanks from your Honour for her so much Concurring to the publick safety then to be justly liable to ... bitter invectives." In their view, it was not only courage and diplomacy that enabled her to save the day, but her womanliness, which demanded and received "Civility." The men of her place and time would not give her the vote, but they openly acknowledged that her abilities and civilizing talents were of crucial importance to the "publick safety."


FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT MARGARET BRENT
Margaret Brent's career presents many questions that can not be definitively answered. What follows addresses some of those frequently asked and adds some additional comments on problems of interpretation that often arise. It is assumed that any one making use of these notes has a general familiarity with Margaret Brent's story. Appended is a time line of her career in Maryland that helps to establish what is certain about her life and contributions, what can be inferred or provide grounds for a reasonable guess, and what can not be known. Not every reference to Margaret Brent's activities in the courts is included. The result would be unnecessarily repetitious. Anyone who wants to pursue more detail can use the indexes to William Hand Browne, et al., eds. Archives of Maryland, First Series, 72 vols. (1883-1972), 4 and 10 (the series hereafter is cited as Archives), which print the Provincial Court proceedings to 1657. Numbered references are to numbered paragraphs of the time line.

Question 1. What was Ingle's Rebellion?

Ingle's Rebellion, 1645-1646, was an offshoot of the Civil War in England made possible in part by conflicts among Maryland leaders and in part by hostility between Catholic and Protestant settlers. The most detailed and best account is to be found in Timothy B. Riordan, "The Plundering Time: Maryland in the English Civil War, 1642-1650," ms. in possession of the author, Historic St. Mary's City, St. Mary's City, Maryland.
Richard Ingle was a Protestant ship captain who had been trading for tobacco in Maryland and Virginia since 1642. In 1644, while Governor Leonard Calvert was in England, Ingle had a falling-out with Acting Governor Giles Brent, who inadvisably arrested him briefly for treason against King Charles I, by then literally at war with Parliament. Ingle escaped trial, but early in the following year, he appeared in the Chesapeake armed with letters of marque from Parliament that allowed him to seize ships or goods belonging to supporters of the king. He may not have left England planning a raid on Maryland, but in Virginia he was told that Leonard Calvert, under a commission from King Charles, was going to seize debts owed to Ingle. At that point, if not before, Ingle began to plan an attack on Maryland, perhaps in collaboration with William Claiborne, who had just made an abortive attempt to reclaim Kent Island. In Virginia Ingle picked up a few men willing to participate in his plans and on February 14, 1645, he surprised the settlement at St. Mary's City. ([2]; [2a]; [3]; [4]; Riordan, chap. 8: 1-22; 9: 14-17, 23-28; 10: 10-23; 11: 6-23, 34-35.)
There are only scraps of information about what happened over the next several months, coming primarily from later law suits brought against or by Ingle in England; scattered depositions taken after proprietary authority was reestablished; and archaeological excavations. Councillor Giles Brent was captured immediately. He was visiting the Dutch ship Looking Glass anchored in the river. Ingle seized the ship as a prize. Some Protestant settlers joined Ingle's men, and there was considerable disorder for a while, but no actual bloodshed, so far as is known. Governor Calvert managed to collect and arm supporters and create some sort of fortification called St. Thomas's Fort, which was probably located on the properties of the Brents. (Giles Brent's town land property and that of his sisters were referred to in some documents as St. Thomas's Lot.) The rebels fortified Calvert's own house near the original St. Mary's Fort, which was evidently too decayed for use. From these two temporary strongholds, both sides foraged in the community for corn and cattle, and Ingle's men, along with Protestant rebels, looted and sometimes burned the homes of leading Catholics. Ingle even sailed to Kent Island and looted and burned Giles Brent's estate there. (Riordan, Chap. 11: 6-23, 34-35; 12: 1-20; "Richard Ingle in Maryland," Maryland Historical Magazine 1 [1906], 125-140.)
Ingle sailed for England in late March or early April of 1645, his vessel packed with plunder. He carried with him as prisoners Giles Brent; John Lewger, the Provincial Secretary; and two Jesuit priests, Father Andrew White and Father Thomas Copley. Undoubtedly, he had hoped to carry Leonard Calvert, too, but had not succeeded in capturing him. Evidently Ingle believed that the identity of his prisoners supplied sufficient proofs that he had found Maryland in the hands of a papist tyranny hostile to Parliament, and he expected vindication for his raid. The plundered goods and Looking Glass would be forfeit, making his adventure profitable indeed. These expectations proved false, but that is part of another story. (Riordan, Chap. 12: 26-34; 14: 1-31.)
Ingle later claimed to have left Maryland in the hands of a Protestant government, and Riordan argues that the makings, at least, were on hand.
How long after Ingle's departure Leonard Calvert remained in Maryland to lead his supporters is unclear. At some point during the summer of 1645, he appeared in Virginia, where he asked for help from Governor William Berkeley and the Virginia Council. (The evidence comes only from sparse notes taken before the council records were destroyed during the Civil War.) Since Berkeley, who had been in England, did not return to Virginia until June 7, Calvert probably left Maryland after that date. Once he was gone, the rebels took the fort with armed force, but so far as is known, the worst disorders then came to an end. Riordan argues that even during the "time of plunder" a cadre of able Protestant leaders is visible and an organized pattern of anti-proprietary and anti-Catholic activity can be detected. All was not chaos and chance. Some kind of provisional government was established. In the words of the 1649 Assembly, the rebel leaders "assumed the Government ... of ... the Province unto themselves." (Riordan, Chap. 13: 1-31; quote, p. 30.)
Calvert may have hoped to return to St. Thomas's Fort with new men and arms, but whether or not help from Virginia was possible, events had overtaken him for the moment. He made no effort that is known to regain the colony until the middle of 1646. Was he ill? Had he arrived in Virginia with wounds that needed healing? Was he occupied instead in efforts to finance and organize an invasion? No records remain to tell us or to inform us of what was happening in Maryland. A document Calvert signed on September 15, 1645 and witnessed by the rebel leader Nathaniel Pope suggests but does not prove Calvert's presence in Maryland on that date. (5d.) Was he at that point a prisoner? Probably not, but such a meeting is mysterious.
Not until July 30, 1646, does Leonard Calvert finally surface as an actor in Maryland affairs. That day he appointed one Captain Edward Hill of Virginia to be governor of Maryland. But in December, Calvert arrived in the colony with soldiers to subdue it. ([6]; [8]; Riordan, Chap. 15: 2-7.)
There is no certain explanation for this sequence of events and again no record of what was happening. Later documents indicate that under Hill there was a functioning government. Courts heard cases, Hill appointed a sheriff and called for elections to an assembly, which met. Hill seems to have left abruptly but peaceably when Calvert arrived, although he later protested the loss of his office. (Riordan, Chap. 15: 7-9.)
Calvert must always have intended to resume the governorship and may have begun his preparations for return as early as August 5, 1646. On the basis of later documents, this is a likely date for his offering a pardon to all inhabitants of St. Mary's who had been in rebellion, provided that they accepted Lord Baltimore's government. He arrived at St. Mary's, probably in late December, with a force of 28 soldiers, about half of them former inhabitants. It appears that he met with little resistance. He quickly called up the Assembly that had been elected under Hill; he did not try to call elections for a new one. In the presence of this Assembly, six of his soldiers swore that Calvert had told them before leaving Virginia that if he found that the inhabitants of St. Mary's had accepted his pardon the soldiers were to expect no pillage; he would receive the inhabitants in peace and ask only that they aid him in reducing Kent. With these reassurances, and doubtless feeling little appetite for violence, the Assembly sat for four days. It passed several laws, the most important being an act for collecting a custom of 60 pounds of tobacco per hogshead of tobacco exported from Maryland. This revenue was intended to support and pay the soldiers, although Leonard Calvert had to pledge payment from both his own and his brother's estate should the custom prove insufficient. ([8]; [40]; Riordan, Chap. 15: 9-30.)
It was another four months before Calvert had Maryland safely secured. A group of Protestant dissidents fled to Chicacoan, a small settlement across the Potomac river in Virginia, and from there made efforts to raise resistance in Maryland. Problems on Kent Island were even more dangerous. One Peter Knight had seized the Brent properties and led the inhabitants in refusal to accept Lord Baltimore's government. And William Claiborne had returned in a last ditch effort to end Calvert rule by inducing the Islanders to attack St. Mary's. In the end Claiborne failed, and Knight, seeing no hope of help from Virginia, departed for Chicacoan after looting the Brents' estate. When Calvert arrived with his soldiers in early April of 1647 he had little difficulty persuading the few men who by then remained on the island to take the oath of fidelity and accept Lord Baltimore's government. On April 16, he pardoned all on Kent who had taken the oath, and on April 18, he reestablished the local government in the name of Lord Baltimore with the appointment of a commander and justices of a county court. Thus ended what Marylanders called the Time of Troubles and what historians have called Ingle's Rebellion. (Riordan, Chap. 17: 1-10.)
Leonard Calvert achieved success, but Lord Baltimore might have lost his colony just the same had not the second half of the 1640s been a time of boom in the tobacco industry. When Ingle began his raid, there were probably between 500 and 600 inhabitants; when Calvert returned there were probably only about 100. The others had left in search of peaceful rule and opportunities to achieve prosperity without constant threat of violence. Had poor economic prospects caused the population drain to continue, the Calvert colony would have come to an end. Instead, however, once peace appeared to be established, the Maryland population grew rapidly. There would be future challenges to Calvert rule, but no lack of settlers to exploit the land. (Russell R. Menard, "Maryland's 'Time of Troubles': Sources of Political Disorder in Early St. Mary's," Maryland Historical Magazine 76 (1981), 137; Riordan, Chap. 17: 4-5.)
Question 2: How many soldiers had Leonard Calvert recruited to recover the colony? What payment did he promise them?
There is no direct mention of how many soldiers Calvert brought with him, but Timothy Riordan has estimated the number at 28, of whom 13 had been living in Maryland before the rebellion. Riordan has calculated, from various payments Margaret made, that the wage owed each soldier was 1500 pounds of tobacco plus three barrels of corn, with more for officers. (Riordan, "The Time of Plunder," chap. 15: 10-12.)

Question 3: When exactly did Leonard Calvert die? Do we know what killed him? Why did he appoint Margaret Brent his executrix?
Leonard Calvert was alive on June 9, 1647 and lived for about six hours after making Margaret Brent his executrix on that day. Presumably he died on June 9, but possibly not until early on June 10. ([10], [11], [13].)
As for the cause of Calvert's death, there is no information. However, he was not sick for long. On June 1, he was presiding in court. (11.) I have sometimes speculated that illness prevented his return to Maryland sooner and weakened him for whatever sickened him that June. One Doctor Waldron was called from Virginia to treat him. (28.)
Why did Calvert select Margaret Brent to be his executor? Why not ask her brother Giles, who had been acting governor in the past? Or, why not Thomas Green, whom Calvert did name governor? As before, one can only speculate. The Calverts and the Brents were cousins, albeit very distant cousins going back eight generations. (Chart showing connections between the Calvert, Arundel, and Brent families, prepared by Aleck Loker, 1998.) This family connection may help account for the special terms on which Margaret and Mary Brent were granted land. The relationship may have counted in Leonard Calvert's choice.
But why Margaret instead of Giles? First of all, Giles probably was not in St. Mary's City when Leonard was dying. After his brief appearance in Maryland in November 1646, he does not turn up in the Maryland records again until June 19, ten days after Calvert had expired. (13.) However, Calvert might not have selected Giles had he been on hand. The Governor had reason to distrust him after his marriage to Mary Kittomaquand. He had not participated in the restoration of Lord Baltimore's government and may have been at Piscataway trying to establish his wife as the inheritor of her deceased father's position. Giles's behavior in the first assembly held after Calvert's death (see below, Question 4) suggests that distrust was an appropriate attitude. (39.) At the same time, Calvert knew Margaret Brent had the necessary ability and courtroom experience to carry out his instructions. He chose to rely on her.

Question 4. Date and reasons for Margaret Brent's appointment as Lord Baltimore's attorney? What were her powers? Who replaced her when she stopped? When did she lose the responsibility?
On January 3, 1647[/8], it was "moved in Court whether or noe Mr Leon: Calvert (remayning his Lps Sole Attorney within this Province before his death, & then dying) the sd Mr Calvert's admistrator [sic] was to be received for his Lps Attorney wthin this province, untill such time as his Lp had made an new substitution, or tht some other remayning uppon the prnt Commisn were arryved into the province. The Governor demanding Mr Brent's opinion uppon the same Quere. Hee answered tht he did conceive tht the administrator ought to be lookd uppon as Attorney both for recovering of rights into the estate, & taking care for the estates preservation: But not further, until his Lp shall substitute some other as afresd." Governor Thomas Green concurred and "it was ordered tht the Administrator of Mr Leon: Calvert aforesd should be received as his Lps Attorney to the intents abovsd." (19.)
This opinion does not say that Margaret had power to pay away anything belonging to the Proprietor without his consent. However, powers that Lord Baltimore had granted to Calvert and John Lewger on November 15, 1646 had included powers to demand and receive his rents, debts, and other dues and "to dispose thereof as I shall from time to time direct, & in default of such directions, according to yor best discretions, for my most advantage, until I shall give further orders therein." (7.) If Leonard Calvert had been granted such powers, then could Margaret as his substitute exercise them? Evidently she was not sure, nor was her brother. She did not sell any of Lord Baltimore's property until circumstances absolutely demanded it.
It is suggestive, furthermore, that Lord Baltimore did not believe that he had given his brother such powers unless exercised with Lewger. The Proprietor was furious with Leonard for promising the soldiers that the Proprietor's own estate would be liable if necessary. He stated in his letter to the Assembly in 1649 that he had not authorized Leonard to act alone and that Lewger had denyed "to us here" that he had given his assent. (39.) (Apparently, Lewger was in the colony at Calvert's arrival, but had left for England before Calvert's death.)
Why did the Provincial Court -- which consisted at the moment of Governor Thomas Green, Giles Brent, and Thomas Gerard -- choose Margaret Brent? One can only offer speculations. She was already handling Leonard Calvert's estate and negotiating with the soldiers well. Diplomatic talents were essential. Leonard Calvert had put his trust in her with the words "Take all & pay all." And of course, the appointment was only until His Lordship could make his own. ([39], [13], [19].) One might have thought that Giles Brent would have wanted and been able to insist on the appointment, but the other men probably did not trust him.
It is known from the Assembly's letter to Lord Baltimore on April 21, 1649, more than a year later, that Lord Baltimore was very angry at the appointment and at the sale of his cattle that began shortly afterwards. He was equally angry with Giles Brent, who, according to letters from Governor Greene and others, had led an anti-proprietary faction in the Assembly that met off and on from January 22 through March 4 1647[/8]. This Assembly had voted to repeal laws passed in the Assembly of December 1646 -- including the act for tobacco custom intended to pay the soldiers -- and had sent the Proprietor a "seditious" "Remonstrance." (39.) What is not known is just when all this news reached Lord Baltimore. In Maryland, Margaret continued to act as the His Lordship's attorney, and Giles continued to sit on the Council through at least December 10, 1648. ([31]; [31a]; [31b]; [33]; [34]; [35].) Thereafter Giles disappeared from the Council and seems to have left the colony. Margaret appeared for the last time as His Lordships attorney at court on February 9, 1648[/9]. (35.) One can suppose that denunciations and orders from Lord Baltimore arrived soon thereafter.
In the meantime, he had established new officers for Maryland. On August 6, 1648, he commissioned Captain William Stone as governor, and replaced John Lewger with Thomas Hatton as secretary. (Both Stone and Hatton were Protestants.) But he seems not yet to have received news of the events of January-March 1647[/8]. In his instructions to Governor Stone and to a new Council, he declared null and voyd all laws passed under Governor Hill but made no mention of the acts and "Remonstrance" of March 1647[/8] that in his letter of August 26, 1649 he angrily denounced. (29, 39). In August 1648, he must have been ignorant of the spring's events.
The new government was not established in Maryland until after March 15, 1648[/9], the day of the last Provincial Court to meet with Greene sitting as governor. On April 2, Governor Stone convened the Assembly, the first that had met since March 4, 1647[/8]. It seems remarkable that seven months had passed from Stone's appointment to his installation in Maryland and that more than a year had elapsed since the events of January-March, 1647[/8]. Communications between Lord Baltimore in England and his settlers in Maryland clearly were often very slow, whether or not there were crises to be settled. Undoubtedly it was very slow communications that kept Margaret Brent active for a year as His Lordship's attorney in fact. ([36], [37].)
Who replaced her? Likely it was Thomas Hatton, the new Provincial secretary, but there is no correspondence or other direct evidence to prove it. Indirect evidence suggests the probability. Letters in the Calvert Papers show that John Lewger had taken care of Lord Baltimore's estate when Lewger was secretary; and he and Leonard Calvert had shared Lord Baltimore's appointment as attorney for this purpose in 1646. (John Lewger to Lord Baltimore, January 5, 1638[/9], The Calvert Papers Number One, Fund Publication No. 28 [Baltimore, Md., 1889], 194-201; [7].)

Question 5: How soon did the mercenaries become hostile after Calvert's death?
Probably by October 6, 1647, when Captain John Price, in the name of the garrison, got the Provincial Court to attach all of Calvert's estate. (15.)
The request stated the the soldiers were owed 46,500 pounds of tobacco and 100 barrels of corn for wages.

Question 6: Did Margaret Brent sell all of Leonard Calvert's estate to settle his debts? How many mercenaries were paid directly from the estate? Were there arrangements other than direct payment (land, cattle, etc)?
Margaret Brent recorded an administration account on June 6, 1648. (28) Although Calvert's lands and buildings were added into the inventory, under English law she could not sell these without a court order or a special act of the legislature. They were all available for Calvert's son William to occupy and develop when he arrived in Maryland in 1661 to claim them. The only exception was the 100-acre tract, "The Governor's Field," which Governor William Stone believed he had purchased from Margaret Brent, although she denied the sale. See (51).
Margaret Brent's accounting of Leonard Calvert's estate showed
56,142 pounds of tobacco in assets, but when the land, valued at ll,000 pounds of tobacco, and Lord Baltimore's debt to his brother (18,548 pounds of tobacco "to the estate layd out in Mr Calvert's life") are subtracted, there were only 26,594 pounds of tobacco available to pay Calvert's debts. At the moment of this accounting, Margaret had paid out 23,440 pounds of tobacco and the remaining 3,154 pounds were under attachment for paying the soldiers. ([15]; [17]; [28].) Payments already made to the soldiers came to 9,522 pounds of tobacco.
In the April 2-21, 1649, session, the Assembly finally passed a custom of ten shillings for every hogshead exported in a Dutch ship, of which half was to go to His Lordship and half to pay the soldiers. (37.) (This payment was smaller than dictated by the act of 1646.) Thereafter, Margaret referred any soldier applying for payment to his rights under this act. ([31a], [38].) How many soldiers she had paid off and how much, if any, of Leonard Calvert's movable Maryland estate remained by then I can not tell. The records show that she paid some of the claims with Lord Baltimore's cattle, but if the assertions of the Assembly are to be believed, there may not have been many available. ([21], [22], [24], [25], [27], [37].) Soldiers certainly were not paid in land. In the end, most had to await payments from the tobacco custom finally passed by the Assembly in 1649.
It is clear that Lord Baltimore lost most of his cattle during Ingle's Rebellion. Accounts sent to him late in 1644 showed 93 head, of which 37 were cows or heifers. The Assembly averred that only 12 cows and a bull were left after the depredations of the rebels, although there were unmarked animals in the woods, some of which might be his. ([37]; Archives 4: 276-277; 1: 240-241.)
Question 8. What were the circumstances that surrounded Margaret Brent's request to vote in the Assembly of January-March, 1647/48? What did she hope to gain?
There was a shortage of food, the soldiers were hungry, and they had lost the leader who had promised to pay them. Less than three weeks before the Assembly met, Margaret Brent had been given charge of Lord Baltimore's property, which -- apart from land and ordnance that she would not dare touch -- consisted mostly of livestock, much depleted during the "time of plunder." Undoubtedly, she would have preferred not to sell the animals without his knowledge and consent, but this would take months to obtain. She had to act quickly. Unless the Assembly would agree to keep the tax on tobacco passed by the Assembly of 1646 or would make some other public assessment, she would have to pay the soldiers with cattle. She doubtless knew the burgesses wanted to repeal the tobacco tax and hoped to persuade them to desist. ([12-19]; [37]; [39].)
The very day her request to have voice in the Assembly was refused, she paid a soldier with a cow. (21.)

Question 9. Why did Margaret Brent ask for two votes?
Perhaps she hoped that by providing two reasons for eligibility she would increase her chances of gaining admission to the Assembly.

Question 10. Did Lord Baltimore offer any assistance towards the costs of recovering his colony? Why did the assembly resist paying the soldiers?
The Assembly members of April 2-21, 1649 argued that -- given the destruction during the rebellion and their consequent poverty -- their efforts to reestablish Lord Baltimore's government were contribution enough. (37.) Lord Baltimore argued that "an Equall Assessment upon all the Inhabitants ... is the justest and usuall way in all Civill Kingdomes and Commonwealths for defraying of publick charges." Princes were not expected to carry the burden of public defense from their private fortunes. They would be ruined and made unable to protect their subjects. (39.)
Both sides made a concession. In 1649, the Assembly passed an act that gave His Lordship and heirs for seven years a custom of 10 shillings per hogshead on tobacco shipped from Maryland in Dutch ships, of which half was to go to claims arising from the recovery and defense of the Province. (37) These provisions were evidently similar to those of the act passed in 1646 and repealed by the Assembly of 1647/48. In addition, the act of 1649 raised an assessment on every inhabitant to pay His Lordship within two years 16 cows and a bull "in consideracon of his Lopps former stock of cattell distributed and disposed of towards the defence and prservacon of the Province." (39.) The following summer, the Proprietor agreed to this arrangement, provided that 1) the Assembly did in fact provide the promised cattle and 2) that it would pass sixteen acts he had sent to the Assembly of 1647[/8] in expectation that it would accept them all without alteration (which it had not done). (39.) Whether any or all of these laws were ever passed without alteration is not clear; we do not know what his contained. Probably some that the Assembly did pass were essentially those Lord Baltimore had sent. Whether or not Lord Baltimore got all that he had demanded, he made no further objection to this inroad on a tax that he might have insisted on keeping for himself.
Question 11: If Margaret Brent had been granted vote and voice, how would that have changed things?
Probably not much, at least with respect to her own position and that of her brother. She might have persuaded the Assembly not to repeal the act for tobacco custom passed in 1646, which was supposed to be used to pay the soldiers, and thereby saved herself from Lord Baltimore's wrath on the score of her selling property without his consent. But he would still have been suspicious of her. He was furious with Giles for his role in the Assembly of March 4, 1647[/8], which 1) refused to recognize the Assembly of 1646 or any of the laws it had passed on the grounds that Leonard Calvert had not called for a new election; 2) refused to pass sixteen acts the Proprietor had sent with orders to pass them as a body unaltered; and 3) prepared a remonstrance that Governor Greene had refused to sign. From what Lord Baltimore said about this documment, one can infer that it had criticized the Act for Recognition and the act laying down the wording of the oath of fealty, two of the sixteen acts. The words objected to were "Absolute Lord and Proprietary," from which some inferred "a slavery in the people to us," and "Royall Jurisdiction," seen as exceeding "the power intended to us by the ... charter." Lord Baltimore interpreted the remonstrance and rejection of the acts as indications of possible conspiracy against his auhority and as efforts to alienate the people "from the present government." (39.) He may also have interpreted Giles's marriage to Mary Kitomaquund as positioning to acquire Indian lands without a proprietary grant. In 1685, Lord Baltimore's nephew George Talbot said as much to William Penn. ([30]; "Conference between Penn and Talbot, at New Castle in 1684," Maryland Historical Magazine 3 [1908]) The fall of the Brents from grace was undoubtedly inevitable, no matter how conscientious Margaret may have tried to be.


MARGARET of sisters freehold 10xga Brent (1601 - 1671)
10th great-aunt
Richard 10X Sheriff of Gloucestershire Brent (1573 - 1652)
father of MARGARET of sisters freehold 10xga Brent
Richard 9GG Brent (1595 - 1671)
son of Richard 10X Sheriff of Gloucestershire Brent
Margaret 8x Brent BARTLETT (1645 - )
daughter of Richard 9GG Brent
WILLIAM BERKELEY 7X OF STAFFORD BARTLETT (1690 - 1761)
son of Margaret 8x Brent BARTLETT
WILLIAM BERKLEY OF WESTMORELAND 6x BARTLETT (1722 - 1804)
son of WILLIAM BERKELEY 7X OF STAFFORD BARTLETT
Garner 5X OF MONTGOMERY R1b1b2 Bartlett (1750 - 1811)
son of WILLIAM BERKLEY OF WESTMORELAND 6x BARTLETT
Reuben S. 4GG BARTLETT (1776 - 1840)
son of Garner 5X OF MONTGOMERY R1b1b2 Bartlett
Sarah Ann 3GG Bartlett KING (1808 - 1884)
daughter of Reuben S. 4GG BARTLETT
Nancy Rachel 2XGG KING BARTLETT (1845 - 1913)
daughter of Sarah Ann 3GG Bartlett KING
Martha Callie Bartlett COLLINS (1874 - 1950)
daughter of Nancy Rachel 2XGG KING BARTLETT
May Catherine "Mamie" Collins Nichols (1895 - 1936)
daughter of Martha Callie Bartlett COLLINS
HOWARD E "POP" NICHOLS R-M269 (1936 - 2017)
son of May Catherine "Mamie" Collins Nichols
RAYMOND E NICHOLS R-CTS1751

Friday, August 25, 2017

William de Huntingfield, Sheriff of Norfolk and Suffolk, Surety of the Magna Carta

William de Huntingfield, Lord of East Brandenham is your 23rd great grandfather.

You
   →  POP
your father →  Rufus Samuel Nichols, R-CTS1751
his father →  James "Jim" Ira Nichols, R-CTS1751
his father → Ezekiel Hankin Nichols, R-CTS1751
his father →  John Nichols, R-CTS1751
his father →  Judith Nichols
his mother →  Richard Hatcher
her father →  William Hatcher, Jr.
his father →  William Hatcher, Sr.
his father →  Edward Hatcher, Sr.
his father →  Marian Mary Hatcher
his mother →  Capt. Christopher Newport, Admiral of Virginia
her father → Christopher Newport, Sr.
his father →  Christopher Richard Newporte
his father →  Mary Allington
his mother →  John Allington
her father →  Elizabeth Argentine
his mother → Isabel Kerdiston
her mother →  Cecily de Braose
her mother →  Sir John de Braose, Lord of Stinton
her father →  Giles De Braose
his father → Alice (Alicia) (le Rus) de Braose, Heiress of Stinton and Ludborough
his mother →  William le Rus
her father →  Alice de Huntingfield
his mother → William de Huntingfield, Lord of East Brandenham
her father

https://www.geni.com/people/William-de-Huntingfield-Lord-of-East-Brandenham/368756446860013200

Friday, August 18, 2017

Stenkil Ragnvaldsson, King of Sweden

Stenkil Ragnvaldsson, Kung av Sverige is your 29th great grandfather.
You
   →  Mom
your mother →  Pvt. Garnett Hancock, WWII Veteran
her father →  Burrell H Hancock
his father →  Rhoda Lawrence Hancock
his mother → Susan Frances Lawrence
her mother →  Rhoda P O'Bryan
her mother →  Pvt. Drury Holland, Revolutionary Soldier
her father →  Charles Holland
his father →  Peter Holland
his father →  Nehemiah Holland
his father →  Francis Gabriel Holland
his father →  John Philemon Holland
his father →  Henry Holland
his father →  Henry Holland
his father → Thomas Holland
his father →  Henry Holland
his father →  John Holland, 2nd Duke of Exeter
his father →  Elizabeth Plantagenet, Duchess of Exeter
his mother → John of Gaunt
her father →  Philippa of Hainault, Queen consort of England
his mother →  Jeanne de Valois
her mother → Marguerite d'Anjou, comtesse d'Anjou et du Maine
her mother →  Mary, Queen of Naples
her mother →  KUN Erzsébet of the Kumans, Queen consort of Hungary
her mother →  Erzsebet of Galicia, Russian Princess
her mother →  Mstislav "the Daring"
her father →  Mstislav Rostislavich "the Brave" prince of Novgorod
his father → prince Rostislav I Mstislavich
his father →  Christina Ingesdotter of Sweden
his mother →  Inge the Elder, king of Sweden
her father → Stenkil Ragnvaldsson, Kung av Sverige
his father

EOIN MACNICOL OF THE CLAN MACNICOL

EOIN AKA JOHN MACNICOL of the Highland Clan MacNicol may be a direct ancestor through my paternal line and it is believed that my YDNA is directly descended from MACNICOL CLAN CHIEFS as it is highly probable that most of the MacNicol clan is descended from the first chief of the clan hy tradition...

Having found a profile created on Geni.com I was surprised to learn that the whole world tree has already linked me to him through my Grant line,,,,  and in only about 21 generations... could JOHN MACNICOL be my 21st great grandfather?.. the world may never know.....

Eoin MacNicol is your 15th great uncle's grandfather.

You 
→ POP 
your father → Rufus Samuel Nichols 
his father → Tressie (King) Nichols 
his mother → Michael O. King
her father → Margaret (Wright) King
his mother → James GRANT Wright
her father → Mary Whitledge Wright
his mother → William Grant, of Crichie
her father → Elizabeth Grant
his mother → Jean Erskine
her mother → Sir Alexander Erskine, Baron of Gogar
her father → Margaret Campbell
his mother → Elizabeth Stuart, Countess of Argyle
her mother → Margaret Montgomerie
her mother → Alexander Montgomerie of Auchterhouse, 1st Lord Montgomerie
her father → Agnes MacDonald of the Isles
his mother → Margaret Macdonald dau. of the Lord of the Isles
her sister → Roderick MacLeod, 5th of Lewis
her husband → Margaret MacNicol
his mother → Eoin MacNicol
her father


links
EOIN JOHN MACNICOL

THE MACNICOL CLAN OF SCOTLAND

My Y DNA goes back to the MacNicol Clan of Scotland which means that part of me is a highlander. At some point in time someone in the clan changed their last name and one of their descendants, probably Simon Nicholls moved to Maryland and was my immigrant ancestor. That is my story and i am sticking to it...

MACNICOL CLAN OF SCOTLAND


According to various traditions, the MacNeacails once had possession of Lewis before losing their lands to the MacLeods through the marriage of a MacNeacail heiress.[7] In the 17th century, John Morison of Bragar stated as much when he wrote: "... Macknaicle whose onlie daughter Torquill the first of that name (and sone to Claudiusthe sone of Olipheous, who likewise is said to be the King of Noruway his sone,) did violentlie espouse, and cutt off Immediatlie the whole race of Macknaicle and possessed himself with the whole Lews ...".[7][8] Similarly, the garbled Bannatyne Manuscript indicates that the MacNeacails held Lewis from the Kings of Mann, and that the clan's possession of the island terminated though the marriage of an heiress to a MacLeod. The manuscript also states that a branch of the MacNeacails held Waternish on Skye before the MacLeods. Other traditions associate the MacNeacails with the mainland in Assynt and Coigach; the ruins of Caisteal Mhic Neacail ("MacNeacail's Castle") near Ullapool may well corroborate these links.[7] . Producing a description of Assynt to accompany the Statistical Account of 1794, Rev William Mackenzie drew upon a local tradition that the district had been granted by the Thane of Sutherland to one 'MacKrycul', in recognition of his service against Viking cattle-raiders. The local belief that MacKrycul was the 'potent man' from whom the MacNicols descended is seemingly backed up by the MS. 1467, in which the first of two Nicails - living approximately in the mid-twelfth century - is listed as the son of 'Gregall'.
The History of the MacDonalds may well refer to a member of the clan, when it states that a "MacNicoll" was killed on North Uist by Olaf the Red. Olaf ruled the Kingdom of the Isles until his death in 1153. Since the reference to MacNicoll appears after an account of Godfrey Donn, during an episode which took place in about 1223, the story of MacNicoll's death may actually refer to Olaf the Black, rather than his grandfather Olaf the Red. Another tradition which may refer to the MacNeacails concerns the coat of arms of the MacLeods of Lewis. In the 17th century, the Earl of Cromartie recounted the traditional explanation of the arms: that the Kings of Norway had the MacLeods man two beacons, one on Lewis and one on Skye, to guide the king's ships safely through the islands. Since the MacLeods appear to have gained Lewis long after the Hebrides was incorporated into the Kingdom of Scotland, the tradition may well refer instead to the MacNeacails. If this is the case, then the MacLeods of Lewis not only inherited their lands from the MacNeacails, but also aspects of their heraldry.[7] The actually heraldry borne by the medieval clan is, however, unknown.[9]

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If you need more info on the MACNICOL CLAN...

CLAN MACNICOL FEDERATION
CLAN MACNICOL DNA PROJECT
CLAN MACNICOL FB GROUP
CLAN MACNICOL FTDNA GROUP
CLAN MACNEACAIL WIKI

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