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Friday, April 14, 2017

MDLP K16 Modern Admixture Proportions

MDLP K16 Modern Admixture Proportions

The K16 model of Admixture K16 focuses primarily on 16 worldwide basic, distich components of modern human ancestry, which have been discovered and detailed in Haak et al. (2014), Lazaridis et al. (2016). These components were empirically 'learned' in ADMIXTURE software from allele frequencies of learning merged dataset (116463 SNPs) of human populations, which, in their turn, had been converted into 'synthetic groups of individuals', with each of them representing one (of 16) ancestral populations. Then, the rest of dataset ('reference') was projected unto those ancestral populations with SNPWEIGHTS software: the results of component projection were averaged per each modern group of human population, and taken as 'population reference values' of component membership in 2xOracle and OracleX4.

These 16 component are briefly described below as follows:
Amerindian - a component, which is modal (i.e has a peak) in various native American groups of North and South America, as well as in ancient DNA of Native Americans (Clovis, Kennewick man, etc).
Ancestor - an archaic component, detected in modern African Pygmy populations (such as Mbuties and Biaka) and Khoisan hunter-gatherers.
Steppe - a component which was sourced from ancient genome of European Bronze Age pastoralists: it roughly approximates levels of ancient North Eurasian hunter-gatherers' heritage, which was subsequently shown to have an influence in later eastern hunter-gatherers and to have spread into Europe via an incursion of Steppe herders beginning ∼4,500 years ago.
Indian - a component of ancestry harboured by populations of Indian subcontinent
Arctic - a component displayed in genomes of Eskimo Inuits from Greenland and shared with Siberian Chukchis/Koryaks.
Australian - a component of aboriginal ancestry assigned to Australian aborigens.
Caucasian - a major component of ancestry of modern inhabitants of Caucasus, Iran and northern Indian : it was derived from genomes of mesolithic Caucasian Hunter-gatherers: a major ancestral component linked to CHG was carried west and east by migrating herders from the Eurasian Steppe.
EastAfrican - a very dilluted component being inherited specififically from ancient inhabitants of Ethiopia and African Horn
NorthEastEuropean - a fancy moniker for a dominant type of ancestry in North-Eastern Europe based on older type of ancestry (WHG, west European Hunter-Gatherer), today this type of ancestry peaks in the Baltic region and Scandinavia
NearEast - a component harboured and later carried by ancient populations of Near East, in our time it reaches the maximum among Bedoins and Saudi Arabians; the component seems to carry an excess of Eurasian Basal component relative to Neolithic component.
Neolithic - a component, modeled on genomes of first neolithic farmers of Anatolia (West Asia), these farmers from West Asia migrated to Europe during the Neolithic and carried this component with them.
NorthAfrican - a local component of ancestry found in North Africans: this local North African genetic component is very different from the one found in the populations in the south of the Sahara (Subsaharian component, see below).
Oceanic - a component of aboriginal ancestry assigned to aborigens of Melanesia and Papua-New-Guinea.
Siberian - a component, which is rougly ascribed to Central Siberian (found at highest frequency in Nganasan)
SouthEastAsian - a dominant component of South East Asians: being highest among the Dai, Cambodians, Lahu and Malay, this is the most common East Asian component among South Asians.
Subsaharian - a main component of ancestry seen in Yoruba, Mandenka and Luhya populations.

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